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Glossary of Terms-
Teachers and students. These terms are meant as guides to help your understanding of how they would impact the clothing of the eras you are studying for this project.

A
B
C
D
E
F
G
H
I
J
K
L
M
N
O
P
Q
R
S
T
U
V
W
X
Y
Z
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A
A.A.M.A.: American Apparel Manufacturers Association

accessories: articles added to complete or enhance an outfit of apparel, such as belts, hats, jewelry, shoes, gloves, and scarves.

adornment: decoration or ornamentation.

analogous color scheme: plan using adjacent or ³related² colors on the color wheel.

apparel: general term that includes men¹s, women¹s, and children¹s clothing.

appliqué: design made separately and then sewn onto fabric or a garment; a cutout decoration.

as ready: expression used by manufacturers referring to agreements to deliver merchandise to retailers when it is ready, rather than by a specific date.

asymmetrical: different on one side than the other when divided by a centerline. A garment design in which the right side is not the same as the left side. Also, informal balance.

avant-garde clothes: daring and wild designs that are unconventional and startling.

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B
balance: principle of design that implies equilibrium or steadiness among the parts of a design.

basic apparel: garments that are worn most often and are the core of a person¹s wardrobe.

batting: soft bulky mat of fibers, usually sold in sheets or rolls, used for warm interlinings and stuffing.

biodegradable: ability to be broken down into natural water products.

bleaching: chemical process that removes color, impurities, or spots from fibers or fabrics during fabric finishing or garment laundering.

boutique: specialty shop or a section within a department store devoted to unusual merchandise which is often presented in a nontraditional manner.

business plan: written plan that defines the idea (purpose), operations, and financial forecast of a proposed entrepreneurial venture.


C
CAD: computer-aided design; used to combine and visualize design ideas and to make patterns and prepare them for cutting.

CAM: computer-aided manufacture; utilizes electronics for the production of apparel in ways such as moving garment parts between workstations.

chevron: pattern having the shape of a ³V².

classic: item that continues to be popular and acceptable over a long period of time even though fashions change.

collateral materials: promotional materials other than actual advertisements, such as brochures, annual reports, packaging, hangtags, logos and trademarks, and corporate image projects.

color: a phenomenon of light (as red, brown, pink, or gray), element of design, hue or visual perception that enables one to differentiate identical objects.

computer imaging: CAD function which enables a three-dimensional figure to be shown on a computer monitor and turned so it can be seen from all sides.

conformity: act of obeying or agreeing with some given standard or authority.

cool colors: hues, such as green, blue, and violet, that serve as reminders of water or the sky.

costume curator: fabric and apparel historian usually employed by a museum or library.

costume jewelry: fairly inexpensive jewelry, often of unusual materials or plated with metals, and sometimes containing artificial stones.

cotton: natural fiber obtained from the boll of the cotton plant.

couturier: designer who creates original, individually designed high fashions and usually owns the fashion house.

coverage: the act or fact of covering; to hide from sight or knowledge

craze: passing love for a new fashion that is accompanied by a display of emotion or crowd excitement.

croquis: first rough sketch of a garment design.

culture: the ideas, customs, skills, arts, etc. of a people or group, that are transferred, communicated, or passed along, as in or to succeeding generations.

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D
dart: short, tapered, stitched area that enables a garment to fit a figure.

design: an original or individual arrangement of parts, form, color, fabric, line, and texture to create a fashion style concept. Also, the plan used to put an idea together.

diagram artist: someone who does technical drawings, such as the precise sketches that accompany the written directions of a commercial pattern guide sheet.

display: visual presentation of merchandise or ideas.

double breasted: a front closure that laps over and has two vertical rows of buttons.

dress code: written or unwritten rules of what should or should not be worn by a group of people


E
economics: the science that deals with the production, distribution, and consumption of wealth, and with the various related problems of labor, finance, taxation, etc.

Egyptian cotton: fine, long-staple cotton fiber with a smooth, silk-like texture.

elements of design: building blocks of design that include color, shape, line and texture.

emboss: to give a permanent raised and indented design to a fabric using a calendering process with engraved, heated rollers.

emphasis: principle of design that uses a concentration of interest in particular part or area of a design.

empire (om-peer): dress with a high waistline.

entrepreneur: person who starts own business and who assumes the risk and management of the enterprise.

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F
fabric: cloth made from textile fibers or yarns by weaving, knitting, etc.

fad: temporary, passing fashion or item that has great appeal to many people for a short period of time, then dies out quickly.

fashion conscious: state of being aware of, and wanting, new fashionable items, usually for self-expression and peer approval.

fashion cycle: periodic return of specific styles or general shapes. Also, the cycle of the rise, popularization, and decline of particular styles.

fashion designer: person who creates new ideas for garments and accessories.

fashion merchandising: the planning, buying, promoting, and selling of apparel to meet customer demands as to price, quantity, quality, style, and timing.

fashion show: planned presentation of a group of styles, often as part of the promotion of a season¹s new merchandise.

flagship store: original ³parent² store that gives direction and merchandise to its branch stores.

forecasting services: consultants that foresee the colors, textures, and silhouettes to predict coming fashion trends.


G
garment industry: another name for the apparel manufacturing industry.

gradation: a gradual increase or decrease of similar design elements used to create rhythm in a design.

graphic designer: advertising artist.

gusset: wedge-shaped piece of fabric added to give more ease of movement at a kimono sleeve underarm or other area of a garment.

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H
hangtags: detachable ³signs², usually affixed to the outside of garments, that provide promotional information.

harmony: visual unity of a design created by a tasteful relationship among all parts within the whole.

Hemline Index: theory that links the rise and fall of fashion hemlines to the rise and fall of stock market indexes.

historical events: relating to the gradual change and development of phenomena, for example, language transformations and major occurrences in society.

hourly wage: employee payment based on a predetermined amount of pay for each hour spent doing a job.

hue: the name given to a color.


I
image: visual representation projected by a person, business, or organization which forms a mental picture.

imports: goods that come into the country from foreign sources.

impulse buying: making purchases that are sudden and not carefully thought out.

Industrial Revolution: the time, roughly between the 1700s and mid 1800s, when the hand crafting economy changed to a machine manufacturing economy.

intermediate hues: colors made by combining equal amounts of adjoining primary and secondary hues. Examples are blue-violet, yellow-green, and red-orange.

inventory: supply of goods to be sold.

irregulars: articles of merchandise with slight imperfections or defects that are sold to consumers at reduced prices.

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J
jeans: sturdy pants, usually made of denim.

joint venture: partnership of a domestic firm and a foreign producer for production and sales overseas.

jumper: low-necked, one-piece garment with shoulder straps that is worn over a blouse or sweater.


K
kimono sleeve: sleeve that is a continuous extension out from a garment¹s armhole area.

knickers: pants that end just below the knee where they are gathered to a band or strap.

knock-off: copy of another, usually higher priced, garment.


L
lapel: pointed part of the front neckline of a garment below the collar that is folded back with the collar and looks like a continuation of the collar going down from a ³V² notch along the outer edge.

laser cutting: the cutting out of garment parts with an intense, powerful beam of light that quickly vaporizes the fabric.

lengthwise grain: the direction that the warp yarns run in a fabric, parallel to the selvages.

line: element of design that is distinct, elongated mark as if drawn by a pencil or pen. Also, a collection of styles and designs that will be produced and sold as a firm¹s new selections for a given season.

linen: natural fiber obtained from the stalk of the flax plant.

logo: symbol that represents a person, firm, or organization.

loss leader: item priced so low that the retail outlet makes little or no profit on it but uses it to attract shoppers into the store.

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M
Man-Made Fiber Producers Association, Inc.: trade organization for producers of manufactured fibers in the United States.

mannequin work: fashion modeling, especially when showing a manufacturer¹s line in a showroom.

manufactured fibers: fibers that are produced artificially from substances such as cellulose, petroleum, and chemicals.

media: television, newspapers, and radio collectively: the various means of mass communication thought of as a whole, including television, radio, magazines, and newspapers, together with the people involved in their production

mercerization: caustic soda finishing treatment for cellulosic textiles to increase the luster, strength, absorbency, and dyeability of the fibers.

monochromatic color scheme: plan that uses different tints, shades and intensities of one color.

motif: one unit of a design that is usually repeated.


N
nap: a layer of fiber ends raised from a fabric surface. It appears different when viewed from different directions.

natural fibers: fibers made from natural sources, the most common of which are cotton, linen, wool, and silk.

neutrals: black, white, and gray colors, rather than true hues.

nonwoven fabric: assembly of textile fibers held together by mechanical interlocking in a random web or mat, by fusing, or by bonding.

nylon: the first fiber made totally from chemicals. A very strong manufactured fiber.

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O
odd lots: incomplete assortments of goods, such as overruns or discontinued items, bought by retailers at reduced prices and sold at low retail prices.

opposition: rhythm created in a design when lines meet to form right angles.

outside shop: apparel manufacturing firm that handles everything but the sewing, and sometimes the cutting; it utilizes contractors to do those steps of production.

overruns: extra first-quality apparel items that were produced by a manufacturer but not ordered by retailers.


P
pattern maker: apparel manufacturing employee who translates an apparel design into pattern pieces that can be used for mass production.

peer group pressure: force that makes people want to be like their friends.

people: population; in clothing, the impact people of historical or current importance have on styles and lines of clothing

Pima: specific cotton fibers of high quality and with naturally long fibers.

pleats: structured folds of cloth that give fullness in a garment.

politics: activity within the current political party in power that may have conservative or liberal social views based on current economic, military and social activities.

primary hues: the three basic colors of red, yellow, and blue.

pure silk: silk fabric with no metallic weightings and no more than 10 percent by weight of dyes or finishing materials.

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Q
quality control: employees and activities which analyze the quality of manufactured products and solve problems when necessary so salable goods are produced.

quilted fabrics: three-layer fabrics with batting in the middle, usually held together by machine stitching.


R
ready-to-wear: apparel that is mass-produced in factories according to standard sizes as opposed to being custom-made.

repetition: method of creating rhythm in a design by repeating lines, shapes, colors, or textures.

resiliency: ability of a fiber or fabric to spring back when crushed or wrinkled.

robotics: mechanically accomplished tasks done by automated equipment.


S
sample: the model or trial garment to be shown to the trade.

scale: proportion, or a size relationship of all of the parts in a design to each other and to the whole.

seam: a stitched line that joins two garments parts together.

shade: a darkened color made by adding black to a hue.

shape: element of design signifying the silhouette, or overall outline, of a garment or other item.

sketcher: fashion house employee who makes illustration quality drawings of the ideas that a designer has draped in fabric onto a dressmaker¹s form.

social saturation: a point reached by a fashion when it is overused, is no longer novel or exclusive, and becomes dull and boring.

synthetic: fibers manufactured totally from chemicals.

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T
technology: scientific discovery or modification of products and methods, usually advanced through research and development.

Textile Fiber Products Identification Act: legislation assigning the Federal Trade Commission to organize, name generically, and define the products of the manufactured fiber industry, and to require labeling of textile products with percentages of fibers present.

texture: something composed of closely interwoven elements; specifically : a woven cloth b : the structure formed by the threads of a fabric

theatrical costuming: job of finding or creating appropriate apparel for opera, ballet, stage plays, circuses, movies, advertisements, television productions, and parades.

true bias: grainline that runs at a 45 degree angle, or halfway between the lengthwise and crosswise grains of fabric.


U
uniform: outfit or article of clothing that is specific to everyone in a certain group of people.


V
variant: a manufactured fiber modified slightly during production resulting in a change in the properties of the fiber.

visual merchandising: the use of theatrics and attention-getting ideas and props in a retail store to promote the store and its merchandise.

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W
wardrobe: all the apparel a person owns, including all garments and accessories.

warm colors: hues, such as red, orange, and yellow, that appear to be hot like the sun or fire.

Women¹s Wear Daily: trade newspaper covering all aspects of the fashion industry.


Y
yarn: a continuous, usually twisted, strand of fibers suitable for weaving, knitting, or other processing into fabrics.

yoke: a band or shaped piece, usually at the shoulders or hips, to give shape and support to the garment below.

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Glossary Sources:
Merriam-Webster OnLine Collegiate Dictionary
Fashion, A Study of clothing design and selection, textiles, the apparel industries and careers, Wolfe, 1989.

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Glossary Terms Specific to the Database

color - a phenomenon of light (as red, brown, pink, or gray), element of design, hue or visual perception that enables one to differentiate identical objects (return to database)

coverage - the act or fact of covering; to hide from sight or knowledge (return to database)
lines - element of design that is distinct, elongated mark as if drawn by a pencil or pen. Also, a collection of styles and designs that will be produced and sold as a firm¹s new selections for a given season (return to database)
texture - something composed of closely interwoven elements; specifically : a woven cloth b : the structure formed by the threads of a fabric (return to database)
fabric - cloth made from textile fibers or yarns by weaving, knitting, etc (return to database)
economics - the science that deals with the production, distribution, and consumption of wealth, and with the various related problems of labor, finance, taxation, etc. (return to database)
politics - activity within the current political party in power that may have conservative or liberal social views based on current economic, military and social activity (return to database)
historical events -relating to the gradual change and development of phenomena, for example, language transformations and major occurrences in society (return to database)
people - population: the impact people of historical or current importance have on styles and lines of clothing (return to database)
culture - the ideas, customs, skills, arts, etc. of a people or group, that are transferred, communicated, or passed along, as in or to succeeding generations (return to database)
technology - scientific discovery or modification of products and methods, usually advanced through research and development (return to database)
media - television, newspapers, and radio collectively: the various means of mass communication thought of as a whole, including television, radio, magazines, and newspapers, together with the people involved in their production (return to database)

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