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True learning involves “figuring out how to use what you already know
in order to go beyond what you already think.” 

Jerome Bruner


Some of Jerome Bruner’s publications include:  The Culture of Education, Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1996. Acts of Meaning, Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1991. Actual Minds, Possible Worlds, Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1987

Jerome Bruner Links:

http://www.massey.ac.nz/~i75202/2001/assign2/HB/jbruner.html - This link is very helpful.  Not only does it contain a biography of Jerome Bruner, but also there are numerous links to Concept Attainment, Concept Formation, Discovery Learning, and Constructivist Theory. 

http://starfsfolk.khi.is/solrunb/jbruner.htm_3.htm - This website contains a brief biography of Jerome Bruner.  It also focuses on the three stages in the optimum learning process:  the Enactive Stage, the Iconic Stage, and the Symbolic Stage. 

http://www.my-ecoach.com/idtimeline/constructivism.html - This link focuses on Constructivist Theory and Jerome Bruner, David Ausubel, and Lev Vygotsky.  It offers a definition, principles, and applications for instruction.

http://www.geocities.com/kaflynn2001/bruner_general.html - This website contains a picture of Jerome Bruner as well as an overview of contributions that he hade that began the “cognitive revolution”. 

Concept Attainment Websites/Links:

http://www.people.memphis.edu/~lsopko/conceptattainment.html - This website contains an outline for implementing the Concept Attainment model. 

http://www.unf.edu/~jbosnick/jb/3312extra.htm - This link contains an overview of the concept attainment model and numerous math links.  Some of the math links are:  Geometric Relationship Practice, Word Problems, Metric Conversions, and Problem Solving.

 http://www.ascd.org/readingroom/books/joyce96book.html - This link contains an article by Bruce Joyce and Emily Calhoun.  They focus on various methods teachers use in teaching and highlight the effectiveness of the concept attainment model.  The article states that teachers need to equip themselves with a variety of strategies.  The concept attainment strategy is powerful because it encourages students to become critical thinkers, and leads students to think about how they think (metacognition). 

http://education.nebrwesleyan.edu/mcdonald/235website/Model_Evals/CA.html - This website contains a helpful checklist that can be used to evaluate Concept Attainment lessons. It is divided into three phases: Phase One:  Presentation of Data and Identification of the Concept, Phase Two: Testing Attainment of the Concept, and Phase Three: Analysis of Thinking Strategies. 

http://imet.csus.edu/imet1/richardek/rkport/ca.html - This website was created by Richard Klug, a former iMET student.  His link focuses on using the Concept Attainment model to teach the classification of polygons.  There are positive and negative examples as well as questions for students to ponder.  After the students define the concept, they conduct research on different polygons in groups.  Upon completion of research, students enter information into a database and sketch the various shapes. 

http://curry.edschool.virginia.edu/curry/class/edis/590s4/Miller/Concept_Lesson.htm - This is a unique website that contains a science lesson that employs the Concept Attainment strategy.   The lesson plan included teaches students how to distinguish between biodegradable objects and degradable objects.  It provides an objective, methods used in concept attainment, procedures, and examples.  In addition, the website contains a link to an “Environment Unit”.  “This webpage was created with 100% recycled electrons.”

Math Websites/Links

http://www.sanjuan.edu/schools/mitchell/room4home/attainweb/ - This link is titled “Concept Attainment:  A Model for Constructivist Learning”.  This site is maintained by the San Juan Unified School District.  It contains a very helpful PowerPoint presentation that focuses on using the concept attainment model to investigate number patterns from simple to complex.

http://score.kings.k12.ca.us/lessons/functions.html - This is a math website titled “Functions Made Easy.”  There are useful HTML and PDF worksheets available that address functions as:  relationships, machines, equations, and graphs.  In addition, the California Academic Content Standards for Algebra 1 are included. 

Foreign Language Lesson Using Concept Attainment Strategy

http://www.geocities.com/Paris/LeftBank/3852/concept.html  - This lesson uses the Concept Attainment model to teach students which prepositions to use with countries in French class.  Students are presented with two columns.   One column contains masculine countries that require the preposition “au” and the other column contains feminine countries that require the preposition “en”.  This lesson can be easily adapted for other foreign language classes.

Art Lesson Using the Concept Attainment Strategy

http://www.kn.pacbell.com/wired/art2/guide/index.html - The title of this link is “Eyes on Art”.  Once on the site, scroll down to “No Fear o’ Eras” where you will see a lesson plan that is based on the concept attainment model.  The lesson presents students with examples of a concept and helps them to see critical attributes.  The eras covered are: Byzantine, The Dutch School, Rococo, The Renaissance, Impressionism, Cubism, and Abstract Expressionism.  There are also questions, tips, and a rubric.

Other Useful Math Links

http://www.learner.org/channel/courses/learningmath/algebra/session3/part_c/index.html

http://www.coolmath.com/func1.htm

http://www.enc.org/weblinks/lessonplans/math/0,1544,1%2Dalgebra+functions%2Dall%2DFunctions,00.shtm

http://www.ams.org/msc/26-XX.html

http://www.pbs.org/teachersource/mathline/lessonplans/hsmp/buildingboxes/buildingboxes_procedure.shtm

http://regentsprep.org/Regents/mathb/mathb.cfm#a7

http://illuminations.nctm.org/imath/

http://standards.nctm.org/document/eexamples/chap6/6.2/

http://illuminations.nctm.org/imath/912/TroutPond/index.html

http://www.amatyc.org/OnlineResource/index.html