learning involves “figuring out how to use what you already know
in order to go beyond what you already think.”
Some of Jerome Bruner’s publications include: The Culture of
Education, Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1996. Acts
of Meaning, Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1991. Actual
Minds, Possible Worlds, Cambridge: Harvard University Press,
- This link is very helpful. Not only does it contain a biography
of Jerome Bruner, but also there are numerous links to Concept
Attainment, Concept Formation, Discovery Learning, and Constructivist
- This website contains a brief biography of Jerome Bruner.
It also focuses on the three stages in the optimum learning process:
the Enactive Stage, the Iconic Stage, and the Symbolic Stage.
- This link focuses on Constructivist Theory and Jerome Bruner,
David Ausubel, and Lev Vygotsky. It offers a definition, principles,
and applications for instruction.
- This website contains a picture of Jerome Bruner as well
as an overview of contributions that he hade that began the “cognitive
- This website contains an outline for implementing the Concept
- This link contains an overview of the concept attainment
model and numerous math links. Some of the math links are:
Geometric Relationship Practice, Word Problems, Metric Conversions,
and Problem Solving.
- This link contains an article by Bruce Joyce and Emily Calhoun.
They focus on various methods teachers use in teaching and highlight
the effectiveness of the concept attainment model. The article
states that teachers need to equip themselves with a variety of
strategies. The concept attainment strategy is powerful because
it encourages students to become critical thinkers, and leads students
to think about how they think (metacognition).
- This website contains a helpful checklist that can be used to
evaluate Concept Attainment lessons. It is divided into three
phases: Phase One: Presentation of Data and Identification
of the Concept, Phase Two: Testing Attainment of the Concept, and
Phase Three: Analysis of Thinking Strategies.
- This website was created by Richard Klug, a former iMET student.
His link focuses on using the Concept Attainment model to
teach the classification of polygons. There are positive and negative
examples as well as questions for students to ponder. After the
students define the concept, they conduct research on different
polygons in groups. Upon completion of research, students enter
information into a database and sketch the various shapes.
- This is a unique website that contains a science lesson that employs
the Concept Attainment strategy. The lesson plan included
teaches students how to distinguish between biodegradable objects
and degradable objects. It provides an objective, methods used
in concept attainment, procedures, and examples. In addition, the
website contains a link to an “Environment Unit”. “This webpage
was created with 100% recycled electrons.”
- This link is titled “Concept Attainment: A Model for
Constructivist Learning”. This site is maintained by the San
Juan Unified School District. It contains a very helpful PowerPoint
presentation that focuses on using the concept attainment
model to investigate number patterns from simple to complex.
- This is a math website titled “Functions Made Easy.”
There are useful HTML and PDF worksheets available that address
functions as: relationships, machines, equations, and graphs.
In addition, the California Academic Content Standards for Algebra
1 are included.
Foreign Language Lesson Using Concept Attainment
- This lesson uses the Concept Attainment model to teach students
which prepositions to use with countries in French class. Students
are presented with two columns. One column contains masculine
countries that require the preposition “au” and the other column
contains feminine countries that require the preposition “en”.
This lesson can be easily adapted for other foreign language classes.
Art Lesson Using the Concept Attainment Strategy
- The title of this link is “Eyes on Art”. Once on the site, scroll
down to “No Fear o’ Eras” where you will see a lesson plan that
is based on the concept attainment model. The lesson presents students
with examples of a concept and helps them to see critical attributes.
The eras covered are: Byzantine, The Dutch School, Rococo, The Renaissance,
Impressionism, Cubism, and Abstract Expressionism. There are also
questions, tips, and a rubric.
Other Useful Math Links